A popular theory among fitness professionals is that taking short rest periods between sets maximizes muscular growth. The theory is primarily based on the hormone hypothesis, whereby limiting inter-set rest promotes greater elevations in post-exercise growth hormone, IFG-1 and testosteron...
April 6, 2016
If you follow my work you’ll undoubtedly know that our lab has carried out a number of studies seeking to determine the effects of training in different repetition ranges on muscle strength and growth. The overall findings from these studies showed similar increases in hypertrophy between both heavy and moderate rep ranges, as well as moderate and high rep ranges.
However, the choice of rep ranges is not necessarily an either-or proposition; you can in fact combine strategies to potentially achieve greater hypertrophic benefits. Daily undulating periodization (DUP) routines are specifically designed for this purpose. However, no study to date had compared a varied rep approach to traditional constant-rep training using site-specific measures of muscle growth.
Our study, just published in the International Journal of Sports Medicine, set out to investigate if muscular adaptations would differ between DUP-style routine and a traditional hypertrophy-style protocol. Here’s the scoop.
What We Did
Nineteen young men with over four years average resistance-training experience were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups that trained 3 days per week: a constant-rep protocol (CONSTANT) that trained using a standard bodybuilding rep range of 8-12 RM per set, or a DUP-style varied-rep protocol (VARIED) that trained with 2-4 RM per set on Day 1, 8-12 RM per set on Day 2, and 20-30 RM on Day 3. All subjects performed a total-body routine consisting of the following seven exercises per session: flat barbell press, barbell military press, wide grip lat pulldown, seated cable row, barbell back squat, machine leg press, and machine knee extension. We tested subjects for changes in hypertrophy of the arm flexors, elbow flexors and quads, as well as maximal strength in the squat and bench press, and upper body muscle endurance. Training was carried out over an 8-week period, with testing done pre- and post-study.
What We Found
Both groups significantly increased markers of muscle strength, muscle thickness, and local muscular endurance. No statistically significant differences were found between conditions in any of the outcomes studied. Sounds like it really doesn’t matter which option you choose, right?
Well, not so fast…
It’s important to understand that the term “statistically significant” simply refers to the probability of results being due to chance at a predetermined level of 5%. This binary method of determining probability has been widely criticized by those in the know about statistics, who proclaim that practical conclusions cannot be drawn merely on the basis of whether a p-value passes a specific threshold. Rather, probability exists on a continuum, and in this regard the p-values (a measure of probability) in our study favored the VARIED condition in several outcome measures. Moreover, magnitude-based statistics (i.e. effect sizes) indicated a benefit to the VARIED condition for upper body hypertrophy, strength, and muscular endurance; no effect size differences were noted for lower body outcomes.
What are the Practical Implications
The study showed a potential benefit – albeit small – to varying repetitions across a spectrum of ranges for increasing upper body muscle strength and hypertrophy. Whether the differences between the varied versus constant rep approach seen in our study would amount to practically meaningful improvements is specific to the individual. For the average gym-goer it probably wouldn’t be of much consequence; alternatively, to a bodybuilder or competitive athlete it very well may. It’s not clear why these findings did not translate into similar differences in lower body muscular adaptions, but based on our findings either approach would seem to be an equally viable choice for leg training.
It’s important to note that this was a relatively short-term study, lasting a total of 8 weeks. When factoring in missed sessions, this means subjects in VARIED trained in each loading zone for a total of only 7-8 sessions over the course of the study period. If the differences in upper body outcomes favoring VARIED would persist over time – highly speculative but certainly possible – the magnitude of results could widen and thus be potentially meaningful for a wide array of fitness enthusiasts.
Another important point is that volume load was consistently lower across all conditions (pushing exercises, pulling exercises, leg exercises, and total volume of all exercises) in VARIED as compared to CONSTANT. This indicates that training in a varied fashion provides comparable or better results with less volume load than training at a constant 8-12 RM repetition range. It also suggests that if volume load were equated between conditions, there might have been even better results for the varied approach.
In sum, our study shows that both varied and constant loading schemes are viable strategies to increase strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. The data suggest a potential modest benefit to varying loading ranges over time, at least for maximizing upper body muscular adaptations. Importantly, findings clearly indicate that contrary to what many believe, training in the “hypertrophy zone” (6-12 RM) is not superior for building muscle. When considering the practical implications of the findings, remember that exercise prescription is always a function of the needs/abilities/goals of the individual.
Sorry, the comment form is closed at this time.